Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS)
There are more than 200 eligible properties known as Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) located throughout Arizona. In the 2009 Defense Environmental Program's annual report to Congress, DoD conducted an inventory of FUDS properties with pdf maps available on the DoD website. The Defense Environmental Program also maintains a geographical information systems (GIS) webpage for Arizona.
The Military Munitions Response Program (MMRP) is currently working on completing three remedial investigations (RIs) at FUDS designated properties including the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Fort Huachuca and Kingman Gunnery Range.
The Kingman Gunnery Range site investigation was completed in 2010, and involved sampling primarily for lead from bullets used during WWII training exercises at the small arms ranges, berms, malfunction range and former moving target base. A former skeet range, that was developed into a residential community, was investigated and sampled for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which was found to be in exceedence of the Arizona soil remediation levels. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) began a Time Critical Removal Action (TCRA) for the former skeet range area in 2013 to remove the contaminated surface soil from affected residential yards. Fort Huachuca completed a RI work plan and scheduled field work in late 2013. Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) conducted technical project planning meetings to begin a RI of former WWII training areas.
A stakeholders group has met yearly since July 2001 with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The stakeholder's group includes members of tribal nations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, Arizona State Land Department, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Mohave County and Pinal County. The annual FUDS management action plan stakeholder's meeting or FUDS forum continues to meet each year.
1986: FUDS refer to real properties that were formerly owned by, leased to, possessed by, or otherwise under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense or the Components prior to October 17th. This includes manufacturing facilities for which real property accountability rested with the DoD but were operated by contractors (Government owned-contractor operated properties).
A large majority of FUDS are from World War II era activities. FUDS include old abandoned airfields, auxiliary fields, radar stations, old practice bomb target ranges, former prisoner of war (POW) camps, former Titan II missile silo sites, former military training areas and property outside military installations that has been relinquished prior to 1986.
2002: There have been more than 300 sites investigated in Arizona for eligibility by the USACE. Many sites were duplicates, still active or otherwise ineligible. The USACE has now determined 206 sites in Arizona to be eligible for cleanup under the Defense Environmental Restoration FUDS program. Through the Arizona management action plan (MAP) prepared by USACE in cooperation with EPA, ADEQ and various stakeholders, 103 properties were determined to have potential projects. A complete inventory of FUDS properties is maintained through the MAP. The MAP inventory document contains a brief description of the FUDS program, a fact sheet on each of the sites and a CD that contains the initial inventory project reports.
Inventory project reports have been prepared by the USACE and contain site history, determination of eligibility, site visit summaries and site maps. Investigations into FUDS are ongoing and often involve completing an archive search report to determine the history of the site and identify possible areas of concern.
2003: Past FUDS projects have included the former Kingman Army Airfield, which is now the Kingman Airport. All but a few of the original Kingman Army Airfield buildings have been removed. The property was formerly used as a support facility for aircraft training and has been redeveloped as an industrial business park. Projects included the treatment of dross contamination and construction of an asphalt tarmac paved cap. Various fuel oil tanks were removed and soils around former buildings were investigated and determined to warrant no further action. A no further action decision document for the buildings, sewer line and wastewater treatment plant was approved by ADEQ in February. A 30,000 and a 250 gallon reinforced concrete underground storage tank (UST) were removed in April at the Hackberry water booster station, and a completion report was approved by ADEQ. In April, an above-ground storage tank was removed from the Tacna Gap Filler Annex and the project was completed with concurrence by ADEQ.
2004: Two underground concrete storage tanks were removed at the Kingman Gunnery Range and further characterization and disposal of soils for UST #2 was completed in September. The Winslow Air Force Station was investigated for verification that all of the USTs were removed and no environmental hazards remain. Removal of two 40 foot high above ground storage tanks at the former Douglas Army Airfield (now the Bisbee-Douglas Airport and Prison Complex) was completed in September. The tanks were used to supply aircraft fuel to the Airfield during WWII.
2005: Williams Field Bomb Target Range #6 is a one square mile area that was used for bomb practice in WWII. The site is located 22 miles east of Florence, Arizona, just south of the Florence-Kelvin Highway. There are 24 similar practice bomb targets located throughout Arizona which were used during WWII that have confirmed 100 pound practice bombs or dummy bomb debris. The USACE completed an ordnance investigation known as an engineering evaluation/cost analysis to determine further remedial recommendations. A meeting with the stakeholders, public and property owners was held in November in Florence to discuss the proposed plan of practice bomb surface debris removal and institutional controls. ADEQ requested soil sampling during the removal action.
A kick-off meeting for the former Sahuarita Air Force Range located in the Town of Sahuarita, southeast of Tucson, was held on September 8th. A site investigation was conducted under the MMRP for the four practice bomb targets, air to ground, ground to air range, and the landing strip. Twenty to thirty homes have been built within a mile of the north and south bomb targets. Limited surface water and soil samples were taken at each of the ranges for contamination by munitions constituents.
The Prisoner of War (POW) Camp Eloy was investigated for potential soil contamination. A water tower was dismantled for safety reasons along with filling up a swimming pool used during WWII. ADEQ issued a concurrence letter that the project was complete in January.
2006: An asphalt cap was constructed at the Kingman Airport over several trenches containing dross material with elevated levels of arsenic, cadmium and other metals. ADEQ discussed requirements for a Declaration of Environmental Use Restriction (DEUR), and maintenance plans with USACE and the Kingman Airport Authority. ADEQ conducted inspections of the cap and noted several issues.
2007: The MMRP completed ten site investigations (SIs) at FUDS munitions sites including former Sahuarita Air Force Range, Williams Bomb Target Practice Ranges #4, 9, 10, Palo Alto Precision Bomb Target #3, Laguna Maneuver Areas #3, 5, 6 and Camp Horn. The surface removal of munitions debris from 100-pound practice bombs at the Williams Field Bomb Target Range #6 near Florence, AZ, was completed.
2008: Eleven MMRP munitions SIs were completed this year including Laguna Maneuver Area #7, Williams Bomb Target Practice Ranges #2, 5, 7, 12, 13, 14, and 22, Luke Auxiliary Field #3 in Surprise, Whipple Barracks Target Range, and Camp Bouse. SIs were begun for the Kofa NWR and Willcox Dry Lake Bed parcels.
2009: SIs were started at the following sites: Yuma Test Branch; Task Force Furnace; Palo Alto Precision Bomb Target Ranges #4, 5, and 6; and Kingman Ground to Ground Gunnery Range. The Kingman Dross site completed the investigation report for the asphalt repair and geophysical survey.
2010: A RI involving technology demonstrations began with a kick off meeting and site tours in November for former Williams Practice Bomb Target Ranges #4, 9, 10 and 12.
Several munitions SIs at former military training areas were completed by the USACE. SIs involve information gathering, a site visit and limited sampling for munitions constituents. The goal of the SI is to gather updated site information, score the sites for prioritization and recommend further investigation in the form of a RI or recommend no further action.
Camp Hyder- SI completed.
The former Kingman Army Airfield Small Arms Range- SI completed.
2011: Clean up of the target centers at Williams Bomb Target Ranges #4, 9, 10 and 12 were completed for WWII practice bomb debris. USACE completed a technology demonstration on the four practice bomb targets using a surf rake, rock picker, magnetic removal device, and by hand. No indication were determined that high explosives were ever used on these sites. The scrap metal was certified and sent for recycling.
2012: Kick off meetings were held for the Kofa NWR RI and wide area array assessment, Fort Huachuca FUDS site and technical project planning meetings for Kingman Skeet Range project.
2013: Work began at the Kingman Gunnery Range Skeet Range. A public meeting was held on Feb. 5 and the first round of remediation was conducted between Feb. and May. Removal of two- feet of soil was completed for eight residential properties contaminated with Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from skeet. Phase 2 will begin in Oct. and will include soil removal at approximately 46 properties. A public meeting was held on Aug. 20.
Kofa National Wildlife Refuge completed initial Wide Area Assessment (WAA) activities for munitions. The WAA preliminary findings were presented during a July Technical Project Planning (TPP) meeting and identified areas of interest. TPP meeting discussion included conceptual RI field activity objectives in consideration of wilderness area limitations and wildlife refuge sensitive-species concerns. RI scope of work detail and coordination discussions will continue into 2014.
Also, during 2013 USACE completed a five-year review for the Williams Bomb Target #6 surface clearance and completed a report for the WBTR #4, 9, 10 and 12 RI and removal action.
2014: For WBTR #6, ADEQ met with the US Army Corps of Engineers for a Project Planning Meeting in September 2013 to discuss the five-year review report. The Munitions Response Site Prioritization Protocol scoring sheets were updated for the site in early 2014. For WBTR #4,9,10 and 12 the USACE determined that no further remedial actions can not be done.
Contaminants in soil from UST spills include petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene. There is a possibility of contamination from unexploded ordnance and from skeet ranges with PAHs. Contaminants of concern at the site may change as new data become available.
There is no known risk to human health from these sites. Ordnance debris may pose an explosive safety hazard. Discovery of ordnance should be reported to the local law enforcement authorities and left untouched. For UXO safety and educational materials, go to DENIX - UXO Safety.
*In Arizona, but outside the Phoenix area, call toll-free at (800) 234-5677.
Information on the FUDS programs is also available at the DENIX.
Interested parties can review site information here on this page and at the ADEQ Record Center located at 1110 W. Washington Street, Phoenix, Arizona. Please contact (602) 771-4380 or (800) 234-5677 ext. 6027714380 for hours of operation and to schedule an appointment.