ADEQ: Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Arizona's Official Web Site
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Newsroom: Press Release Archive: April 2003
  • April 18, 2003: ADEQ Fines Johnson Utilities Company $80,000 for Water Quality Violations
  • April 18, 2003: ADEQ to Host "Smoke School" Training in Yuma
  • April 18, 2003: ADEQ Director Steve Owens Names Capalby Community Liaison for Mohave County
  • April 15, 2003: ADEQ Director Steve Owens Praises EPA Proposal to Reduce Diesel Engine Pollution
  • April 14, 2003: ADEQ Seeks Public Comment on Proposed Underground Storage Tank Cleanup in Tucson
  • April 14, 2003: ADEQ, StRUT Team Up to Recycle Used Computers
  • April 14, 2003: Arizona Leads Nation in Recycled Newsprint
  • April 11, 2003: ADEQ Director Owens to Lead Governor's Children's Environmental Health Project
  • April 9, 2003: ADEQ Releases Groundwater Quality Report for the San Rafael Basin
  • April 9, 2003: ADEQ to Host Regional Haze Public Workshops
  • April 5, 2003: ADEQ Director Steve Owens Opens New Facility to Clean Groundwater at Central & Camelback
  • April 1, 2003: Move to New Tougher Ozone Standard Good News for Some, a Challenge for Others

ADEQ Fines Johnson Utilities Company $80,000 for Water Quality Violations

PHOENIX (April 18, 2003) -- Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens today announced that Scottsdale-based Johnson Utilities Company has agreed to pay an $80,000 fine -- the largest civil penalty the department has ever levied acting alone -- to settle violations of Arizona's drinking water laws at its facility near Queen Creek in Pinal County.

The fine stems from the company's violation of three Arizona laws in October 2001, when ADEQ cited the company for failing to receive approvals to build and operate a newly constructed water system to serve the Sun Valley Farms housing development.

"The amount of the fine is appropriate given the nature of the violations and Johnson Utilities' repeated non-compliance with state water quality regulations," Owens said. He noted that ADEQ has been forced to take action against the company three times in the past three years.

Owens said the requirement to obtain approval prior to construction and operation of a water system is a critical element of the multi-barrier process that protects public health and the environment from waterborne bacteria and disease.

"We rely on water service providers to comply with all design, construction, monitoring and reporting requirements, so that we can ensure public health is protected," Owens said. "Whenever a company fails to meet those requirements, it increases the chance that someone will be served water that is unsafe for consumption."

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ADEQ to Host "Smoke School" Training in Yuma

PHOENIX (April 18, 2003) -- The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality will be sponsoring a free "smoke school" April 23 and 24 in Yuma.

Smoke School is a nickname for formal certification in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's method for determining the opacity of smoke and dust emissions. During the testing session, participants evaluate several sets of black and white smoke readings.

The training will be held at the Yuma County Fairgrounds, 2520 E. 32nd St. beginning at 8 a.m. The April 23 session will consist of both classroom and field testing; the April 24 session will be field testing only.

ADEQ conducts Smoke School training twice a year (spring and fall) at locations around the state. Training sessions are also held in Show Low, Tucson, Phoenix and Kingman.

For more information, please contact Fred Ellis, at (602) 771-4851, toll free at (800) 234-5677.

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ADEQ Director Steve Owens Names Capalby Community Liaison for Mohave County

PHOENIX (April 18, 2003) -- Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens today announced the appointment of Matthew Capalby as the department's new community liaison for northwestern Arizona.

Capalby, who lives in Kingman, will assist residents, businesses and municipal governments in Mohave County, western Yavapai County and other areas in northwest Arizona to understand and comply with state and federal environmental laws and regulations.

Owens said that among other duties Capalby will likely spend a significant portion of his time working in Lake Havasu and Bullhead cities on water quality and development issues.

"One of my priorities since becoming ADEQ director in January has been to increase the department's outreach efforts and to be more responsive to Arizona's rural communities," Owens said. "It has been a long time since the department has had a presence in Kingman, so we were very glad when Matt agreed to join the department's staff."

"Matt's great relations in the community and familiarity with the many important issues in Mohave County make him a welcome addition to ADEQ and a great asset to the county," Owens said.

Capalby served as assistant director of the Mohave County Economic Development Authority, chairman of the Kingman Area Chamber of Commerce's Business and Government Relations Committee, and commissioner of the Kingman Municipal Utilities Commission and Kingman Planning and Zoning Commission. He also served seven years as a rescue crewman and medic in the U.S. Coast Guard.

Capalby currently serves on the board of directors for the Boys and Girls Club of Kingman, the Board of Adjustments for the City of Kingman, the American Legion and the Lions Club and is an active member of the Kingman Area Chamber of Commerce.

A third generation resident of Kingman, he and his wife, Abbie, have a 3-year-old daughter, Sophia.

Capalby's office is located at the Mohave Public Works building, 3675 Andy Devine Road in Kingman.

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ADEQ Director Steve Owens Praises EPA Proposal to Reduce Diesel Engine Pollution

PHOENIX (April 15, 2003) -- Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens is praising the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for a proposal that would significantly reduce emissions from nonroad diesel engines used in construction, agricultural and industrial equipment.

The proposal would require stringent new controls for new nonroad diesel engines and reductions of sulfur in diesel fuel beginning as early as 2008. The proposal marks the first time advanced emission control systems will be incorporated into nonroad diesel engines.

Together with the 2007 diesel rule for highway trucks and the school bus retrofit program, these actions will greatly reduce the amount of air pollution emitted by diesel engines in Arizona.

"Nonroad diesels represent the largest group of air pollution sources without modern pollution control technology," Owens said. "Although we cannot put a specific number on the contribution of nonroad diesel sources at this point, we do know that they are a major contributor to air pollution. These new standards will significantly improve air quality in the Valley and elsewhere in Arizona."

The proposal would be fully phased in by 2014.

Nonroad engines produced today meet relatively modest emission requirements and, therefore, emit pollutants which contribute to serious public health problems. With the new rule, advanced emission control systems will be incorporated into nonroad equipment. It is expected that particulate matter and nitrogen oxides from today's engines would be reduced by more than 90 percent.

A typical piece of construction equipment such as a 175 hp bulldozer emits as much nitrogen oxide and particulate matter as 26 new cars today. It is estimated that nonroad diesel engines currently account for about 44 percent of diesel particulate matter emissions and about 12 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions from mobile sources and in some urban areas the percentage is greater. The nonroad program would significantly help Arizona reach clean air goals and improve public health statewide.

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ADEQ Seeks Public Comment on Proposed Underground Storage Tank Cleanup in Tucson

PHOENIX (April 14, 2003) -- Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens is seeking public comments concerning a planned cleanup of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum from a leaking underground fuel storage tank at a Union 76 gasoline station in Tucson. ADEQ plans to remediate the site, located at 3460 S. Sixth Ave., using air sparging and soil vapor extraction systems. These systems are often used in combination to clean up soil and groundwater contaminated with solvents, fuels or other chemicals that evaporate easily.

The air sparging system pumps air into the soil below the water table, causing the contaminants to evaporate faster. The soil vapor extraction system then vacuums the vapors from the soil above the water table, pulling contaminants to the surface for collection and removal.

ADEQ encourages public participation and welcomes comments on the proposed corrective action plan for this site. Comments should be submitted in writing by April 30, 2003 to ADEQ/UST/Site Investigation and Remediation Unit, Attn: Dave Buchard, 1110 W. Washington St., Phoenix, AZ 85007. ADEQ will respond to comments in writing, following the public comment period.

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ADEQ, StRUT Team Up to Recycle Used Computers

PHOENIX (April 14, 2003) -- The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and the Students Recycling Used Technology (StRUT) Program are teaming up to collect and recycle used computers at eight Valley locations and twenty participating Staples stores on Saturday, April 26.

These recycling events provide a great opportunity for the public, organizations and small businesses to dispose of their unused or obsolete computers and computer parts in a way that benefits schools and non-profit organizations throughout Arizona.

All donated computer equipment will either be refurbished by StRUT members and donated to local schools and non-profit organizations or it will be recycled for components. The StRUT Program teaches students computer skills by refurbishing the donated equipment.

This is the fourth consecutive year ADEQ and StRUT have teamed up as part of an effort to reduce the amount of obsolete computer equipment disposed of in landfills. Last year more than 3,000 computers were recycled by StRUT, diverting an estimated 50 tons of computer waste from Valley landfills.

ADEQ officials say the increasing number of computers disposed of each year, combined with the many harmful compounds and metals contained in computer components, increases the importance of computer recycling efforts. The computer recycling locations are:

  • Hamilton High School, 3700 S. Arizona Ave., Chandler
  • Gilbert High School, 1101 E. Elliot Rd., Gilbert
  • Arizona State University (ASU) West, 4701 W. Thunderbird Rd., Glendale
  • Red Mountain High School, 7301 E. Brown, Mesa
  • The Phoenix Zoo, 455 N. Galvin Parkway, Phoenix
  • StRUT Distribution Center and Warehouse. 3809 E. Watkins Rd., Phoenix
  • APS Service Center, 16800 N. Dysart Rd., Surprise
  • Tempe High School, 1730 S. Mill Ave., Tempe

The 20 participating Staples stores are:

  • 1157 W. Chandler Blvd., Chandler (480) 857-3790
  • 1455 W. Warner Rd., Gilbert (480) 503-3200
  • 4350 W. Camelback Rd., Glendale (623) 934-0004
  • 6040 W. Behrend Dr., Glendale (623) 572-9800
  • 1353 S. Alma School Rd., Mesa (480) 461-9100
  • 7032 E. Hampton Ave., Mesa (480) 325-2604
  • 7865 W. Bell Rd., Peoria (623) 878-4411
  • 10310 N. 91st Ave., Peoria (623) 486-0545
  • 2020 N. 75th Ave., Suite 45, Phoenix (623) 245-2300
  • 48th St. and Broadway, Phoenix (602) 438-0000
  • 3903 E. Thomas Rd., Phoenix (602) 273-6200
  • 17097 N. 7th Ave., Phoenix (602) 547-3100
  • 2760 W. Peoria Ave., Phoenix (602) 863-3688
  • 26 W. Osborn Rd., Phoenix (602) 248-8122
  • 1801 E. Camelback Rd., Phoenix (602) 234-0404
  • 10815 N. Tatum Blvd., Phoenix (480) 948-0202
  • 15656 N. Pima Rd., Scottsdale (480) 607-5024
  • 3550 N. Goldwater Blvd., Scottsdale (480) 970-1100
  • 3210 S. McClintock Dr., Tempe (480) 775-6522
  • 1275 W. Elliott Rd., Tempe (480) 940-1545

Staples will accept computer donations during regular store hours on Saturday, April 26 only. For more information about AZ StRUT visit .

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Arizona Leads Nation in Recycled Newsprint

PHOENIX (April 14, 2003) -- For the first time, Arizona printers led the nation in the use of recycled newsprint during 2002, according to a survey report released today by Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens.

According to the report, the average recycled-content among the state's 27 printing companies between July 1, 2001 and June 30, 2002 was 69.6 percent, the highest among 11 states and the District of Columbia that report recycled-content.

Arizona's rate was two and a half times the 2001 national average of 28 percent as reported by the Newspaper Association of America.

This also marks the third consecutive year that Arizona printers significantly exceeded the 40 percent recycled content standard required by Arizona law. The average recycled-content of Arizona newspapers has increased each year for the past three years from 55.1 percent in 2000 to 67.1 percent in 2001 to the present 69.6 percent.

"I am very proud of ADEQ's efforts to promote recycling in Arizona," Owens said. "This survey is only one indicator among many that Arizona is setting the standard for recycling."

Each year, ADEQ surveys 27 printing companies that operate web presses.

Together these printers account for more than 290 newspapers produced in Arizona. Of the 175,981 metric tons of newsprint used by the printers, 122,488 metric tons were recycled paper. Web presses are used for a wide variety of printed materials, from newspapers to advertising inserts, directories and magazines.

Only one of the state's 27 printers failed to meet the 40 percent recycled-content requirement, while six reported using 100 percent recycled-content newsprint.

Arizona's success stands in contrast to the other 10 states with mandatory recycling goals. Though the most recent results indicate California had a fairly high average, 61 percent in 2001, Texas, Wisconsin and Maryland were less successful, averaging between 40 and 50 percent. Seven states reported even lower averages.

Arizona has two advantages. First, the state is home to a large paper mill, Abitibi Consolidated in Snowflake, that not only recycles most of the old newspapers in the state, but also produces 100 recycled-content newsprint. In addition, the two largest users of newsprint in the state, The Arizona Republic, located in Phoenix, and Tucson Newspapers, each consumes an average of over 67 percent recycled-content paper.

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ADEQ Releases Groundwater Quality Report for the San Rafael Basin

PHOENIX (April 9, 2003) -- Groundwater quality in the San Rafael Basin was found suitable for domestic, municipal, irrigation and livestock purposes, according to a report released today by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.

The study, conducted by ADEQ in 2002, took samples from 20 groundwater sites (15 wells and 5 springs) to characterize regional groundwater quality for the basin which encompasses 172 square miles in southeastern Arizona. Samples of inorganics and other compounds collected as part of the study met federal and state water quality standards.

Of the 20 sites sampled, two in the Patagonia Mountains exceeded water quality standards. The elevated levels of contaminants found at these sites can be attributed to the surrounding geology and historic mining for silver, lead, zinc, copper, manganese and gold that increased rock surface exposure.

Although the state does not regulate private wells, ADEQ suggest well owners, particularly those in the Patagonia Mountains, have their groundwater analyzed by a certified laboratory. A list of laboratories may be obtained from the state's Environmental Laboratory Licensure Section at (602) 255-3454.

The report can be downloaded from here.

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>ADEQ Director Owens to Lead Governor's Children's Environmental Health Project

PHOENIX (April 11, 2003) -- Gov. Janet Napolitano today assigned Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens with the responsibility to develop a plan that focuses on environmental factors that affect the health of Arizona children.

Speaking to a group of about 150 adults and children who gathered for a kickoff ceremony on the Capitol lawn, the governor said she is making it a priority for her administration to reduce environmental pollution and decrease potential exposure to toxic substances.

"Put simply, healthy children stand a better chance of growing into the educated, productive workforce that will lead Arizona in the 21st century," the governor said. "To help them succeed, we need to provide for a safe and healthy environment."

Toward that end, Gov. Napolitano directed Owens, in coordination with the Arizona Department of Health Services, to develop a four-step "C.A.R.E. strategy"to address environmental health risks to Arizona children.

First, ADEQ will coordinate with people, groups and agencies involved with children's environmental health issues in Arizona to chart a path to address the environmental issues affecting children.

Next, ADEQ will assess and prioritize the environmental factors that affect Arizona children.

ADEQ will then develop strategies to reduce the number and types of contaminants that adversely affect the health of Arizona children.

Throughout the process, ADEQ will educate and inform the public about environmental hazards and the steps that can be taken to lessen exposure in such a way as to minimize their effects on the lives of children.

Owens said the project reflects a new focus in ADEQ programs.

"While ADEQ has always worked to protect public health and the environment in Arizona, the department has not always focused on issues in a way that makes a difference in people's daily lives,"Owens said. "Healthy children need a healthy environment, and it is our responsibility to minimize the environmental risks to our children's health."

Gov. Napolitano said ADEQ will initially focus on air quality issues with the potential to affect the incidence of childhood asthma, an issue of growing concern among Arizona families. The latest data for Arizona suggest that nearly 7 percent, or about 58,500, Arizona children have been diagnosed with clinical asthma, the treatment of which costs about $3.9 million statewide each year.

ADEQ plans to host a Children's Environmental Health Forum May 30, which will include experts from Arizona and across the country.

The governor was joined at the event by Olympic Gold Medalist Misty Hyman, who was raised in Phoenix and suffered from childhood asthma. Hyman could not even swim the length of the pool when she started swimming at age 5.

Hyman's doctor thought swimming would be good for her asthma, however, and she kept at it, eventually leading to one of the greatest upsets in history during the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia.

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ADEQ to Host Regional Haze Public Workshops

PHOENIX (April 9, 2003) -- The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality will be sponsoring regional haze public workshops around the state from April 10-17.

The workshops will provide an overview of requirements and encourage discussion on proposed revisions to Arizona's Administrative Codes for unlawful open burning and forest and range management burns.

There is no charge to attend the workshops that will be held:

April 101:30 p.m.Arizona State University Downtown Center
502 E. Monroe St. Building C
Phoenix, AZ
April 146 - 8 p.m.Yuma Public Works Building
155 W. 14th St., Training Room
Yuma, AZ
April 156 - 8 p.m.Casa Grande Parks and Recreation Office
404 E. Florence Blvd., Armadillo Room
Casa Grande, AZ
April 166 - 8 p.m.Show Low City Hall
200 W. Cooley
Show Low, AZ
April 176 - 8 p.m.Flagstaff City-Coconino County Public Library
300 W. Aspen
Flagstaff, AZ

Regional haze is visibility impairment, a result of air pollutant emissions from sources located over a wide geographic area. Under the Clean Air Act, states are required to develop programs to assure reasonable progress toward meeting national visibility goals in parks and wilderness areas.

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ADEQ Director Steve Owens Opens New Facility to Clean Groundwater at Central & Camelback

PHOENIX (April 5, 2003) -- Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Director Steve Owens today dedicated a new facility that for the next 10 to 20 years will quietly and efficiently clean up contaminated groundwater near the intersection of Central and Camelback in North Central Phoenix.

The groundwater extraction system was installed as part of an early response action by ADEQ to remove tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) from groundwater in the southwest corner of Central Avenue and Camelback Road.

"Water is a very precious resource here in Arizona, and our efforts to restore groundwater quality around the state will become increasingly important in the years ahead," Owens said. "The beauty of this system is that it was designed to blend in with the planned light rail station, and its presence is supported by the local community."

Owens praised the members of the Central and Camelback Community Advisory Board for their active participation and involvement in the design and construction of the facility.

"The community has been very supportive of this project," Owens said. "As a result of their input, this facility will help ensure groundwater in this area is preserved for future generations."

The facility, which treats about 144,000 gallons of water per day, began treating the groundwater on Jan. 22, 2003.

Groundwater is treated through a granular activated carbon filter to drinking water standards; it will then be released to the Salt River Project canal and used for low flow irrigation of plants at the facility.

In January 1999, ADEQ detected PCE, a dry cleaning solvent, in the groundwater at the southwest corner of the intersection. The site was then placed on the Water Quality Assurance Revolving Fund Registry in June of 2000. It is through this program that the $775,000 Central and Camelback remediation facility received its funding.

Since 1998, funded by corporate income tax transfers and special fees, the WQARF Program has developed a long-term strategy to clean up contaminated sites in Arizona.

The program's innovative approach provides incentives for responsible parties to voluntarily pay for cleanup and also allows cleanup of contaminated sites to proceed while investigations continue to identify responsible parties, each of whom is eventually held liable for a proportional share of the cost.

Members of the local community advisory board were also present at the open house. The board was established in 2000 and advises ADEQ and the public of issues and concerns related to the cleanup of the site. Current board members include: Frank J. Connell (co-chair), Allene Pierce-Avey (co-chair), Charlie Jones, Carm Moehle, Lynn Morrow, Pam Perry and Peter Zorbas.

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Move to New Tougher Ozone Standard Good News for Some, a Challenge for Others Summer Ozone Season Starts a Month Early This Year

PHOENIX (April 1, 2003) -- After six consecutive years of meeting federal air quality standards for ground-level ozone pollution, metropolitan Phoenix is expected to exceed a new, tougher standard as many as 19 times this summer, according to officials at the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.

To meet the challenge, the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and its Clean Air Campaign partners at Valley Metro and the Maricopa Association of Governments kicked off the summer ozone season today, a month earlier than usual.

The new standard, which measures ground-level ozone concentrations over eight hours instead of one, does not take effect until 2004, but ADEQ officials decided to avoid the confusion other states have faced in forecasting and tracking both standards during the transition.

"By forecasting for the new, more protective eight-hour standard this year, we will provide those with health concerns information they can use to manage their exposure to ozone pollution," said ADEQ Director Steve Owens.

"We need to do everything we can to inform those in sensitive groups, such as children, elderly people and asthmatics, about the harmful health effects of ground-level ozone pollution and how to minimize their exposure."

Owens said the move to the more stringent eight-hour ozone standard this year should also prevent violations of the existing one-hour federal standard during the transition.

Ground-level ozone is a colorless, odorless gas produced by the intense heating of chemical compounds and vehicle exhaust emissions during the summer months. Bright sunlight, high temperatures, traffic congestion and the surrounding mountains create perfect conditions for the formation of ground-level ozone pollution in the Valley.

"Health studies continue to provide evidence of the harmful effects that low-level exposure to ozone has on the young, elderly and those with respiratory problems, such as asthma or chronic lung disease," said Dr. Art Mollen, chairman of this year's Clean Air Campaign. "These effects include shortness of breath, and in some cases permanent damage to the lungs and respiratory system."

Children are considered most at risk from exposure to ozone because they are active outside, playing and exercising during the summertime when ozone concentrations are highest. Individuals with asthma or respiratory illnesses and adults who are outdoors and moderately active during the summer months are also among those at risk. These individuals can experience chest pain and coughing when exposed to relatively low ozone levels during periods of moderate exertion.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency directed states to adopt the new standard in 1997, after a number of medical studies found that exposure to lower concentrations of ground-level ozone for prolonged periods is equally as harmful to the human lungs and respiratory system as higher concentrations over a shorter time.

Because most ground-level ozone pollution is produced by mobile sources such as automobiles and gas-powered lawn and gardening equipment, a variety of programs have been created to reduce those emissions. These programs, developed in partnership among ADEQ, Valley Metro and the Maricopa Association of Governments, have contributed significantly to improvements in the Valley's air quality over the past six years.

Arizona has the nation's most stringent vehicle emissions inspection program and also requires cleaner burning fuel to be used during the summer months. In addition, a voluntary lawnmower replacement program, trip-reduction program and the year-round High Pollution Advisory Program all contribute to reductions in ozone-producing emissions.

Local employers also contribute through their participation in programs to reduce the number of vehicles driven to work sites by 10 percent on days when ozone concentrations are expected to exceed air quality standards.

As part of the transition to the new eight-hour ozone standard, ADEQ, Valley Metro and the Maricopa Association of Governments have developed a new public health advisory system for this year.

Beginning April 6 and continuing through September, ADEQ will provide weekly ozone forecasts to Valley news agencies each Sunday to allow residents and employers to plan their commutes and activities for the week ahead.

ADEQ will also provide daily "Ozone Health Watches" or "Ozone Health Warnings" when forecasts indicate conditions that will cause elevated ground-level ozone concentrations.

Ozone Health Watches will advise sensitive groups, such as children, the elderly and those with respiratory illnesses, of days they should limit their outdoor activities because ozone concentrations are expected to exceed health-based standards for sensitive groups.

Ozone Health Warnings will advise Valley residents and employers to activate trip reduction plans, which include car pooling and telecommuting, on days when ozone concentrations are expected to exceed health-based standards for the average person.

Residents who want more information about alternative forms of transportation, rideshare programs or who wish to receive electronic notification of Ozone Health Watches or Ozone Health Warnings when issued should call Valley Metro at (602) 262-Ride (7433) or visit .

Valley Metro also has an online rideshare matching system, , to ease the process of finding a carpool, vanpool or bike-riding partner. The Web site allows users to find potential commute partners who travel to and from the same general area and who share similar work schedules.

The Maricopa County Environmental Services Department will report ADEQ's daily ozone forecast along with a map of air monitoring sites on its Web site at .

During the summer months, all Valley residents are encouraged to reduce ozone-forming emissions by:

  • Using car pools, mass transit, walking or bicycling to reduce driving, especially on hot summer days.
  • Telecommuting one or more days per week.
  • Minimizing the use of gasoline-powered lawn and garden equipment during daylight hours, and being careful not to spill fuel.
  • Waiting to fuel vehicles in the cooler evening hours.
  • Making sure your vehicle's tires are properly inflated and the wheels aligned.
  • Participating in your local utility's energy conservation programs.
  • Sealing containers of household cleaners, workshop chemicals and solvents, and garden chemicals to prevent vapors from escaping.

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